Commoners' Rights*

Historically most rights of common were belonging to particular plots of land, and the commoner would be the person who, for the time being, was the occupier of a particular plot of land. Most land with common rights is adjacent to the common or even surrounded by it, but in a few cases it may be some considerable distance away.

Not all commoners have the same rights, in fact most are different:-

Right of pasture for two horses, six geese and two goats; a right of estovers; a right of firebote, i.e. a right to collect firewood sufficient to burn in the house. (2 commoners)

Right of pasture for two horses and two goats; a right of estovers; a right of firebote, i.e. a right to collect firewood sufficient to burn in the house. (1 commoner)

The right to take tree loppings, underwood and leaf mould for his personal use. (1 commoner)

Estovers. Grazing for 2 horses, 2 asses, 6 cattle, 6 hens and 6 geese. Riding. 2 horses and 2 asses. (1 commoner)

Estovers. Grazing for 1 donkey and foal, 1 pony and foal, 1 cow and calf, 12 hens, 2 geese and 2 goats. Riding. 1 donkey and 1 pony. (1 commoner)

A right of pasture for two horses, a right of estover, a right of firebote, i.e. the collection of firewood sufficient to burn in the house. (1 commoner)

To graze three Grazing, four goats and two horses. To take dead firewood, turf, leaf mould and dead ferns. A right to estovers and a right of firebote. (1 commoner)

A right of estovers and a right of firebote. (1 commoner)

A right to graze two horses, a right of estovers and a right of firebote. (1 commoner)

A right to graze one pony, a right of estovers and a right of firebote. (2 commoners)

A right to graze a pony and a goat, a right of estovers and a right of firebote. (1 commoner)

To graze two horses and/or two asses, six hens, six geese, a right of estovers and a right of firebote. (1 commoner)

A right to estovers and a right of firebote and a right to pasture six geese and one pony. (1 commoner)

A right to estovers and a right of firebote and a right to pasture three geese, one donkey, one pony. (1 commoner)

A right to estovers and a right of firebote and a right to pasture two goats and/or one donkey. (1 commoner)

A right of estovers, a right of firebote and a right of pastures for two goats and six chickens. (1 commoner)

A right of estovers, a right of firebote and pasturing rights for one pony and/or one goat and six chickens. (1 commoner)

Between them they can graze 20 horses and 1 foal, 29 geese, 17 goats, 4 asses, 7 cattle and 1 calf, 36 chickens, 4 donkeys and 1 foal and 3 pigs and they can collect tree loppings, underwood, leaf mould, dead ferns, turf and wood.

Estovers: Wood that a tenant is allowed to take, for life or a period of years, from the land he holds for the repair of his house, the implements of husbandry, hedges and fences, and for firewood.

Firebote: The rights of tenants to take firewood

* extracted from the Buckinghamshire County Council Register of Common Land − Registration unit CL.63 1968 update 1980